Comparative Analysis of the Semantic Conditions of LoD3 3D Building Model Based on Aerial Photography and Terrestrial Photogrammetry
3D modeling of buildings is an important method in mapping and modeling the built environment. In this study, we analyzed the differences between the semantic state of actual buildings and 3D models of LoD3 buildings generated using aerial and terrestrial photogrammetric methods. We also evaluated the accuracy of the visual representation as well as the suitability of the building geometry and texture. Our method involves collecting aerial and terrestrial photographic data and processing it using SFM (structure from motion) technology. The photogrammetric data was then processed using image matching algorithms and 3D reconstruction techniques to generate 3D models of LoD3 buildings. The actual semantic state of the building was identified through field surveys and reference data collection. The 3D building model was successfully modeled from 1201 photos and 19 ground control points. The results of the evaluation of the geometry accuracy test, dimensions and semantic completeness of the 3D model, the use of aerial photographs and terrestrial photogrammetry in LoD3 3D modeling are assessed from the results of the automatic 3D modeling process using SfM (Structure from Motion) technology that produces 3D building models in Level of Detail (LoD) 3 with Root Mean Square Error values <0.5 meters and has semantic completeness of the building in accordance with the original object based on the City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) standard. The facade formed from the modeling almost follows the original model such as doors, windows, hallways, etc.
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