WorldView-2 Satellite Image Classification using U-Net Deep Learning Model
Land cover maps are important documents for local governments to perform urban planning and management. A field survey using measuring instruments can produce an accurate land cover map. However, this method is time-consuming, expensive, and labor-intensive. A number of researchers have proposed using remote sensing, which generates land cover maps using an optical satellite image with various statistical classification procedures. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) technology, such as deep learning, has been used in multiple fields, including satellite image classification, with satisfactory results. In this study, a WorldView-2 image of Terangun in Aceh Province, which was acquired on Aug 2, 2016, was classified using a commonly used deep-learning-based classification, namely, U-net. There were eight classes used in the experiment: building, road, open land (such as green open space, bare land, grass, or low vegetation), river, farm, field, aquaculture pond, and garden. For comparison, three classification methods: maximum-likelihood, random forest, and support vector machine, were performed compared to U-Net. A land cover map provided by the government was used as a reference to evaluate the accuracy of land cover maps generated using two classification methods. The results with 100 randomly selected pixels revealed that U-Net was able to obtain a 72% and 0.585 for overall and kappa accuracy, respectively; whereas, overall accuracy and kappa accuracy for the maximum likelihood, random forest and support vector machine methods were 49% and 0.148; 59% and 0.392; and 67% and 0. 511; respectively. Therefore, U-Net outperformed those three of classification methods in classifying the image.
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